1.7.3 2022-09-30

  • [Support]: Fix a non-fatal bug in our long_description generation causing 1.7.0-1.7.2 to have malformed description text on PyPI.

1.7.2 2022-09-30

  • [Bug]: Fix errors thrown when comparing Task objects to non-Task objects; such comparisons are now always false.
  • [Bug] #876: Refactor CLI parser instantiation such that the tasks.ignore_unknown_help feature (added in 1.7) works when Invoke is run in --complete mode, i.e. in tab-completion scripts.

1.7.1 2022-05-11

  • [Bug] #659: Improve behavior under nohup, which causes stdin to become an undetectably-unreadable (but otherwise legit) file descriptor. Previously this led to OSError even if you weren’t expecting anything on stdin; we now trap this specific case and silently ignore it, allowing execution to continue. Thanks to @kingkisskill for initial report and to Ryan Stoner for followup and workshopping.

1.7.0 2022-03-18

  • [Feature] #845: Env vars explicitly supplied to sudo (via its env kwarg) are now explicitly preserved via sudo’s --preserve-env argument. Patch courtesy of Benno Rice.

  • [Feature] #793: Add a new tasks.ignore_unknown_help config option for users who hand their tasks centrally-defined argument help dictionaries; it defaults to False but such users may set it to True to avoid exceptions. Thanks to @Allu2 for the report.

  • [Support]: Switch our continuous integration service from Travis-CI to Circle-CI, plus related and necessary updates to various administrative config files, management tasks and metadata. Including but not limited to:

    • Enhanced PyPI-level metadata/links
    • Split out tool config data from setup.cfg
    • Enhance execution & coverage of unit vs integration tests under CI


    Due to various factors, this release will not include a Python 2-compatible wheel archive. Users of Python 2 can still install from the sdist, and are strongly encouraged to check the roadmap as the next release will likely be the one that removes Python 2 entirely!

  • [Support] #803: Upgrade our vendored PyYAML from 3.11 to 5.4.1; this should both supply a number of security fixes, and address problems loading project-level YAML config files under Python 3.10. Fix via Andreas Rammhold.

  • [Support]: Switch to using yaml.safe_load for loading config files. This avoids some warnings under newer PyYAML versions and is also, in a shocking twist, more secure.

1.6.0 2021-07-09

  • [Feature] #791: Add a new run.echo_format configuration option allowing control over the format of echoed commands. It defaults to the previously hardcoded value (wrap in ANSI bold) and is thus backwards compatible. Thanks to David JM Emmett for the patch.
  • [Support]: Document the dry keyword argument to run, which had been added in version 1.3 but only documented as a CLI flag; it does also work as a kwarg (and as a config option).
  • [Support]: (Mostly) alphabetize the list of run() params in the runners API docs. Previously they were an unordered mess.

1.5.1 2021-07-09

  • [Bug] #751: Don’t explode on empty-but-for-whitespace task docstrings. Thanks to Matt Hayden for the report & initial patches.
  • [Support]: Document the dry keyword argument to run, which had been added in version 1.3 but only documented as a CLI flag; it does also work as a kwarg (and as a config option).
  • [Support]: (Mostly) alphabetize the list of run() params in the runners API docs. Previously they were an unordered mess.

1.5.0 2020-12-30

  • [Feature]: Upgrade MockContext to wrap its methods in Mock objects if the (unittest.)mock library is importable. This makes testing Invoke-using codebases even easier.

  • [Feature] #700: Automatically populate the command attribute of Result objects returned by MockContext methods, with the command string triggering that result. Previously users had to do this by hand or otherwise suffered inaccurate result objects. Thanks to @SwampFalc for the report & initial patch.

  • [Feature] #441: Add a new repeat kwarg to MockContext which, when True (default: False) causes stored results for its methods to be yielded repeatedly instead of consumed. Feature request courtesy of @SwampFalc.

  • [Feature]: MockContext now accepts a few quality-of-life shortcuts as keys and values in its run/sudo arguments:

    • Keys may be compiled regular expression objects, as well as strings, and will match any calls whose commands match the regex.
    • Values may be True or False as shorthand for otherwise empty Result objects with exit codes of 0 or 1 respectively.
    • Values may also be strings, as shorthand for otherwise empty Result objects with those strings given as the stdout argument.
  • [Feature]: MockContext now populates its NotImplementedError exception instances (typically raised when a command is executed which had no pre-prepared result) with the command string that triggered them; this makes it much easier to tell what exactly in a test caused the error.

  • [Feature] #197: Allow subcollections to act as the default ‘tasks’ of their parent collections (via the new default kwarg to add_collection). This means that nontrivial task trees can specify eg “use my test subcollection’s default task as the global default task” and similar. Thanks to Tye Wang for the request and initial patch.

  • [Feature] #454: (also #577/#658, via #583/#681/#607) Allow any string-compatible object to be passed to, enabling use of eg pathlib.Path instances. Thanks to Jimm Domingo for the original report and Ludovico Bianchi, Mario César, and Floris Lambrechts for patches.

  • [Bug]: Immutable iterable result values handed to MockContext would yield errors (due to the use of pop()). The offending logic has been retooled to be more iterator-focused and now works for tuples and etc.

  • [Bug] #398: (via #611/#580) Don’t silently ignore task help specifiers which don’t actually map to the decorated task’s arguments (eg @task(help={"foo": "help for foo"}) wrapping a task without a foo argument). Reported by Sohaib Farooqi, with original patches by Hayden Flinner and Floris Lambrechts.

  • [Bug] #409: (via #611/#580) Don’t silently discard help text for task arguments whose names happen to contain underscores. Reported by @iago1460, original patches by Hayden Flinner and Floris Lambrechts.

  • [Support] #586: Explicitly strip out __pycache__ (and for good measure, .py[co], which previously we only stripped from the tests/ folder) in our, since at least some earlier releases erroneously included such. Credit to Martijn Pieters for the report and Floris Lambrechts for the patch.

  • [Support]: Update the testing documentation a bit: cleaned up existing examples and added new sections for the other updates in the 1.5 release.

  • [Support]: Enhanced test coverage in a handful of modules whose coverage was under 90%.

1.4.1 2020-01-29

  • [Bug] #518: Close pseudoterminals opened by the Local class during run(..., pty=True). Previously, these were only closed incidentally at process shutdown, causing file descriptor leakage in long-running processes. Thanks to Jonathan Paulson for the report.
  • [Bug] #660: Fix an issue with run & friends having intermittent problems at exit time (symptom was typically about the exit code value being None instead of an integer; often with an exception trace). Thanks to Frank Lazzarini for the report and to the numerous others who provided reproduction cases.
  • [Support] #586: Explicitly strip out __pycache__ (and for good measure, .py[co], which previously we only stripped from the tests/ folder) in our, since at least some earlier releases erroneously included such. Credit to Martijn Pieters for the report and Floris Lambrechts for the patch.

1.3.1 2020-01-29

  • [Bug] #518: Close pseudoterminals opened by the Local class during run(..., pty=True). Previously, these were only closed incidentally at process shutdown, causing file descriptor leakage in long-running processes. Thanks to Jonathan Paulson for the report.
  • [Bug] #660: Fix an issue with run & friends having intermittent problems at exit time (symptom was typically about the exit code value being None instead of an integer; often with an exception trace). Thanks to Frank Lazzarini for the report and to the numerous others who provided reproduction cases.
  • [Support] #586: Explicitly strip out __pycache__ (and for good measure, .py[co], which previously we only stripped from the tests/ folder) in our, since at least some earlier releases erroneously included such. Credit to Martijn Pieters for the report and Floris Lambrechts for the patch.

1.4.0 2020-01-03

  • [Feature]: Never accompanied the top-level singleton run (which simply wraps an anonymous Context’s run method) with its logical sibling, sudo - this has been remedied.

  • [Feature] #682: (originally reported as #194) Add asynchronous behavior to run:

    • Basic asynchronicity, where the method returns as soon as the subprocess has started running, and that return value is an object with methods allowing access to the final result.
    • “Disowning” subprocesses entirely, which not only returns immediately but also omits background threading, allowing the subprocesses to outlive Invoke’s own process.

    See the updated API docs for the Runner for details on the new asynchronous and disown kwargs enabling this behavior. Thanks to @MinchinWeb for the original report.

  • [Bug]: As part of feature work on #682, we noticed that the Result return value from run was inconsistent between dry-run and regular modes; for example, the dry-run version of the object lacked updated values for hide, encoding and env. This has been fixed.

  • [Bug] #637: A corner case in run caused overridden streams to be unused if those streams were also set to be hidden (eg run(command, hide=True, out_stream=StringIO()) would result in no writes to the StringIO object).

    This has been fixed - hiding for a given stream is now ignored if that stream has been set to some non-None (and in the case of in_stream, non-False) value.

1.3.0 2019-08-06

  • [Feature]: Allow the configuration system to override which Executor subclass to use when executing tasks (via an import-oriented string).

    Specifically, it’s now possible to alter execution by distributing such a subclass alongside, for example, a repository-local config file which sets tasks.executor_class; previously, this sort of thing required use of custom binaries.

  • [Feature] #539: (via #645) Add support for command timeouts, i.e. the ability to add an upper bound on how long a call to run may take to execute. Specifically:

    • A timeout argument to run.
    • The timeouts.command config setting mapping to that argument.
    • The -T/--command-timeout CLI flag.

    Thanks to Israel Fruchter for the request & an early version of the patchset.

  • [Feature] #324: Add basic dry-run support, in the form of a new --dry CLI option and matching run.dry config setting, which causes command runners (eg run, to:

    • Act as if the echo option has been turned on, printing the command-to-be-run to stdout;
    • Skip actual subprocess invocation (returning before any of that machinery starts running);
    • Return a dummy Result object with ‘blank’ values (empty stdout/err strings, 0 exit code, etc).

    This allows quickly seeing what a given task or series of tasks might do, without actually running any shell commands (though naturally, any state-modifying Python code will still run).

    Thanks to Monty Hindman for the feature request and @thebjorn for the initial patch.

  • [Bug] #466: Update the parsing and CLI-program mechanisms so that all core arguments may be given within task CLI contexts; previously this functionality only worked for the --help flag, and other core arguments given after task names (such as --echo) were silently ignored.

  • [Bug] #557: (with assist from #640) Fix the cd and prefix context managers so that with cd and with prefix correctly revert their state manipulations after they exit, when exceptions occur. Thanks to Jon Walsh and Artur Puzio for their respective patches.

  • [Bug] #552: (also #553) Add a new Runner method, close_proc_stdin, and call it when standard input processing detects an EOF. Without this, subprocesses that read their stdin until EOF would block forever, hanging the program. Thanks to @plockc for the report & initial patch.


    This fix only applies when pty=False (the default); PTYs complicate the situation greatly (but also mean the issue is less likely to occur).

  • [Bug] #384: (via #653) Modify config file loading so it detects missing-file IOErrors via their errno attribute instead of their string rendering (eg "No such file"). This should improve compatibility for non-English locales. Thanks to Patrick Massot for the report and Github user @cybiere for the patch.

1.2.0 2018-09-13

  • [Feature] #301: (via #414) Overhaul tab completion mechanisms so users can print a completion script which automatically matches the emitting binary’s configured names (compared to the previous hardcoded scripts, which only worked for inv/invoke by default). Thanks to Nicolas Höning for the foundational patchset.

1.1.1 2018-07-31

  • [Bug] #559: (also fabric/fabric#1812) Modify how Runner performs stdin terminal mode changes, to avoid incorrect terminal state restoration when run concurrently (which could lead to things like terminal echo becoming disabled after the Python process exits).

    Thanks to Adam Jensen and Nick Timkovich for the detailed bug reports & reproduction assistance.

  • [Bug] #556: (also fabric/fabric#1823) Pre-emptively check for an error condition involving an unpicklable config file value (Python config files and imported module objects) and raise a useful exception instead of allowing a confusing TypeError to bubble up later. Reported by Pham Cong Dinh.

1.0.2 2018-07-31

  • [Bug] #559: (also fabric/fabric#1812) Modify how Runner performs stdin terminal mode changes, to avoid incorrect terminal state restoration when run concurrently (which could lead to things like terminal echo becoming disabled after the Python process exits).

    Thanks to Adam Jensen and Nick Timkovich for the detailed bug reports & reproduction assistance.

  • [Bug] #556: (also fabric/fabric#1823) Pre-emptively check for an error condition involving an unpicklable config file value (Python config files and imported module objects) and raise a useful exception instead of allowing a confusing TypeError to bubble up later. Reported by Pham Cong Dinh.

1.1.0 2018-07-12

  • [Feature] #543: Implemented support for using INVOKE_RUNTIME_CONFIG env var as an alternate method of supplying a runtime configuration file path (effectively, an env var based version of using the -f/--config option). Feature request via Kevin J. Qiu.
  • [Feature]: Add a klass kwarg to @task to allow extending codebases the ability to create their own variants on @task/Task.
  • [Feature]: Remove overzealous argument checking in @task, instead just handing any extra kwargs into the task class constructor. The high level behavior for truly invalid kwargs is the same (TypeError) but now extending codebases can add kwargs to their versions of @task without issue.
  • [Feature]: Refactor Call internals slightly, exposing some previously internal logic as the clone_data method; this is useful for client codebases when extending Call and friends.
  • [Feature]: Enhance Call with a new method (clone_data) and new kwarg to an existing method (clone grew with_) to assist subclassers when extending.
  • [Support]: Implemented some minor missing tests, such as testing the INVOKE_DEBUG low-level env var.
  • [Support]: Fix some test-suite-only failures preventing successful testing on Python 3.7 and PyPy3, and move them out of the ‘allowed failures’ test matrix quarantine now that they pass.
  • [Support]: Apply the black code formatter to our codebase and our CI configuration.
  • [Support]: Fixed some inaccuracies in the API docs around Executor and its core kwarg (was erroneously referring to ParserContext instead of ParseResult). Includes related cleaning-up of docstrings and tests.

1.0.1 2018-07-12

  • [Bug]: As part of solving #528 we found a related bug, where unnamed subcollections also caused issues with inv --list --list-format=json. Specifically, Collection.serialized sorts subcollections by name, which is problematic when that name is None. This is now fixed.
  • [Bug] #528: Around Invoke 0.23 we broke the ability to weave in subcollections via keyword arguments to Collection, though it primarily manifests as NoneType related errors during inv --list. This was unintentional and has been fixed. Report submitted by Tuukka Mustonen.
  • [Bug]: Fix up the __repr__ of Call to reference dynamic class name instead of hardcoding "Call"; this allows subclasses’ __repr__ output to be correct instead of confusing.
  • [Bug] #270: (also #551) None values in config levels (most commonly caused by empty configuration files) would raise AttributeError when merge_dicts was used to merge config levels together. This has been fixed. Thanks to Tyler Hoffman and Vlad Frolov for the reports.
  • [Support]: Implemented some minor missing tests, such as testing the INVOKE_DEBUG low-level env var.
  • [Support]: Fix some test-suite-only failures preventing successful testing on Python 3.7 and PyPy3, and move them out of the ‘allowed failures’ test matrix quarantine now that they pass.
  • [Support]: Apply the black code formatter to our codebase and our CI configuration.
  • [Support]: Fixed some inaccuracies in the API docs around Executor and its core kwarg (was erroneously referring to ParserContext instead of ParseResult). Includes related cleaning-up of docstrings and tests.

1.0.0 2018-05-09

  • [Feature]: Updated Task to mimic the wrapped function’s __module__ attribute, allowing for better interaction with things like Sphinx autodoc that attempt to filter out imported objects from a module.

  • [Feature]: Added the –prompt-for-sudo-password CLI option for getpass-based up-front prompting of a sensitive configuration value.

  • [Bug]: Tweaked the innards of Config/DataProxy to prevent accessing properties & other attributes’ values during __setattr__ (the code in question only needed the names). This should have no noticeable effect on user code (besides a marginal speed increase) but fixed some minor test coverage issues.

  • [Bug]: Removed an old, unused and untested (but, regrettably, documented and public) method that doesn’t seem to be much use: invoke.config.Config.paths. Please reach out if you were actually using it and we may consider adding some form of it back.


    This is a backwards incompatible change if you were using Config.paths.

0.23.0 2018-04-29

  • [Feature] #33: Overhaul task listing (formerly just a simple, boolean --list) to make life easier for users with nontrivial task trees:

    • Limit display to a specific namespace by giving an optional argument to --list, e.g. --list build;
    • Additional output formats besides the default (now known as flat) such as a nested view with --list-format nested or script-friendly output with --list-format json.
    • The default flat format now sorts a bit differently - the previous algorithm would break up trees of tasks.
    • Limit listing depth, so it’s easier to view only the first level or two (i.e. the overall namespaces) of a large tree, e.g. --list --list-depth 1;

    Thanks to the many users who submitted various requests under this ticket’s umbrella, and to Dave Burkholder in particular for detailed use case analysis & feedback.

  • [Bug]: (partially re: #449) Update error message around missing positional arguments so it actually lists them. Includes a minor tweak to the API of ParserContext, namely changing needs_positional_arguments (bool) to missing_positional_arguments (list).

  • [Bug] #516: Remove the CLI parser ambiguity rule regarding flag-like tokens which are seen after an optional-value flag (e.g. inv task --optionally-takes-a-value --some-other-flag.) Previously, any flag-like value in such a spot was considered ambiguous and raised a ParseError. Now, the surrounding parse context is used to resolve the ambiguity, and no error is raised.


    This behavior is backwards incompatible, but only if you had the minority case where users frequently and erroneously give otherwise-legitimate flag-like values to optional-value arguments, and you rely on the parse errors to notify them of their mistake. (If you don’t understand what this means, don’t worry, you almost certainly don’t need to care!)

  • [Bug]: Integer-type CLI arguments were not displaying placeholder text in --help output (i.e. they appeared as --myint instead of --myint=INT.) This has been fixed.

  • [Bug]: Collection had some minor bugs or oversights in how it responds to things like repr(), ==; boolean behavior; how docstrings appear when created from a Python module; etc. All are now fixed. If you’re not sure whether this affects you, it does not :)

  • [Bug]: Previously, some error conditions (such as invalid task or collection names being supplied by the user) printed to standard output, instead of standard error. Standard error seems more appropriate here, so this has been fixed.


    This is backwards incompatible if you were explicitly checking the standard output of the inv[oke] program for some of these error messages.


    If your code is manually raising or introspecting instances of Exit, note that its signature has changed from Exit(code=0) to Exit(message=None, code=None). (Thus, this will only impact you if you were calling its constructor instead of raising the class object itself.)

  • [Support] #469: Fix up the doc/example re: subclassing Config. Credit: @Aiky30.

  • [Support] #433: Add -dev and -nightly style Python versions to our Travis builds. Thanks to @SylvainDe for the contribution.

  • [Support]: Rename invoke.platform to invoke.terminals; it was inadvertently shadowing the platform standard library builtin module. This was not causing any bugs we are aware of, but it is still poor hygiene.


    This change is technically backwards incompatible. We don’t expect many users import invoke.platform directly, but if you are, take note.

  • [Support] #515: Ported the test suite from spec (nose) to pytest-relaxed (pytest) as pytest basically won the test-runner war against nose & has greater mindshare, more shiny toys, etc.

  • [Support]: (partially re: #33) Renamed the --root CLI flag to --search-root, partly for clarity (#33 will be adding namespace display-root related flags, which would make --root ambiguous) and partly for consistency with the config option, which was already named search_root. (The short version of the flag, -r, is unchanged.)


    This is a backwards incompatible change. To fix, simply use --search-root anywhere you were previously using --root.

0.22.1 2018-01-29

  • [Bug] #488: Account for additional I/O related OSError error strings when attempting to capture only this specific subtype of error. This should fix some issues with less common libc implementations such as musl (as found on e.g. Alpine Linux.) Thanks to Rajitha Perera for the report.
  • [Bug] #437: When merging configuration levels together (which uses copy.copy by default), pass file objects by reference so they don’t get closed. Catch & patch by Paul Healy.
  • [Bug] #342: Accidentally hardcoded Collection instead of cls in Collection.from_module (an alternate constructor and therefore a classmethod.) This made it rather hard to properly subclass Collection. Report and initial patch courtesy of Luc Saffre.
  • [Support] #469: Fix up the doc/example re: subclassing Config. Credit: @Aiky30.
  • [Support] #433: Add -dev and -nightly style Python versions to our Travis builds. Thanks to @SylvainDe for the contribution.

0.22.0 2017-11-29

  • [Bug]: Iterable-type CLI args were actually still somewhat broken & were ‘eating’ values after themselves in the parser stream (thus e.g. preventing parsing of subsequent tasks or flags.) This has been fixed.

  • [Bug] #407: (also #494, #67) Update the default value of the config value so that it reflects a Windows-appropriate value (specifically, the COMSPEC env var or a fallback of cmd.exe) on Windows platforms. This prevents Windows users from being forced to always ship around configuration-level overrides.

    Thanks to Maciej ‘maQ’ Kusz for the original patchset, and to @thebjorn and Garrett Jenkins for providing lots of feedback.

  • [Support] #364: Drop Python 2.6 and Python 3.3 support, as these versions now account for only very low percentages of the userbase and are unsupported (or about to be unsupported) by the rest of the ecosystem, including pip.

    This includes updating documentation & packaging metadata as well as taking advantage of basic syntax additions like set literals/comprehensions ({1, 2, 3} instead of set([1, 2, 3])) and removing positional string argument specifiers ("{}".format(val) instead of "{0}".format(val)).

0.21.0 2017-09-18

  • [Feature] #132: Implement ‘iterable’ and ‘incrementable’ CLI flags, allowing for invocations like inv mytask --listy foo --listy bar (resulting in a call like mytask(listy=['foo', 'bar'])) or inv mytask -vvv (resulting in e.g. mytask(verbose=3). Specifically, these require use of the new iterable and incrementable arguments to @task - see those links to the conceptual docs for details.

0.20.4 2017-08-14

  • [Bug]: The behavior of Config when lazy=True didn’t match that described in the API docs, after the recent updates to its lifecycle. (Specifically, any config data given to the constructor was not visible in the resulting instance until merge() was explicitly called.) This has been fixed, along with other related minor issues.

0.20.3 2017-08-04

  • [Bug] #467: (Arguably also a feature, but since it enables behavior users clearly found intuitive, we’re considering it a bug.) Split up the parsing machinery of Program and pushed the Collection-making out of Loader. Combined, this allows us to honor the project-level config file before the second (task-oriented) CLI parsing step, instead of after.

    For example, this means you can turn off auto_dash_names in your per-project configs and not only in your system or user configs.

    Report again courtesy of Luke Orland.


    This is a backwards incompatible change if you were subclassing and overriding any of the affected methods in the Program or Loader classes.

0.20.2 2017-08-02

  • [Bug] #465: The tasks.auto_dash_names config option added in 0.20.0 wasn’t being fully honored when set to False; this has been fixed. Thanks to Luke Orland for the report.

0.20.1 2017-07-27

  • [Bug]: Fix a broken six.moves import within invoke.util; was causing ImportError in environments without an external copy of six installed.

    The dangers of one’s local and CI environments all pulling down packages that use six! It’s everywhere!

0.20.0 2017-07-27

  • [Feature] #322: Allow users to completely disable mirroring of stdin to subprocesses, by specifying False for the run.in_stream config setting and/or keyword argument.

    This can help prevent problems when running Invoke under systems that have no useful standard input and which otherwise defeat our pty/fileno related detection.

  • [Feature] #329: All task and collection names now have underscores turned into dashes automatically, as task parameters have been for some time. This impacts --list, --help, and of course the parser. For details, see Dashes vs underscores.

    This behavior is controlled by a new config setting, tasks.auto_dash_names, which can be set to False to go back to the classic behavior.

    Thanks to Alexander Artemenko for the initial feature request.

  • [Feature] #310: (also #455, #291) Allow configuring collection root directory & module name via configuration files (previously, they were only configurable via CLI flags or generating a custom Program.)

  • [Feature]: (required to support #310 and #329) Break up the Config lifecycle some more, allowing it to gradually load configuration vectors; this allows the CLI machinery (Executor) to honor configuration settings from config files which impact how CLI parsing and task loading behaves.

    Specifically, this adds more public Config.load_* methods, which in tandem with the lazy kwarg to __init__ (formerly defer_post_init, see below) allow full control over exactly when each config level is loaded.


    This change may be backwards incompatible if you were using or subclassing the Config class in any of the following ways:

    • If you were passing __init__ kwargs such as project_home or runtime_path and expecting those files to auto-load, they no longer do; you must explicitly call load_project and/or load_runtime explicitly.

    • The defer_post_init keyword argument to Config.__init__ has been renamed to lazy, and controls whether system/user config files are auto-loaded.

    • Config.post_init has been removed, in favor of explicit/granular use of the load_* family of methods.

    • All load_* methods now call Config.merge automatically by default (previously, merging was deferred to the end of most config related workflows.)

      This should only be a problem if your config contents are extremely large (it’s an entirely in-memory dict-traversal operation) and can be avoided by specifying merge=False to any such method. (Note that you must, at some point, call merge in order for the config object to work normally!)

  • [Bug]: Display of hidden subprocess output when a command execution failed (end-of-session output starting with Encountered a bad command exit code!) was liable to display encoding errors (e.g. 'ascii' codec can't encode character ...) when that output was not ASCII-compatible.

    This problem was previously solved for non-hidden (mirrored) subprocess output, but the fix (encode the data with the local encoding) had not been applied to exception display. Now it’s applied in both cases.

  • [Bug] #396: Collection.add_task(task, aliases=('other', 'names') was listed in the conceptual documentation, but not implemented (technically, it was removed at some point and never reinstated.) It has been (re-)added and now exists. Thanks to @jenisys for the report.


    This technically changes argument order for Collection.add_task, so be aware if you were using positional arguments!

0.19.0 2017-06-19

0.18.1 2017-06-07

  • [Bug]: Update Context internals re: command execution & configuration of runner subclasses, to work better in client libraries such as Fabric 2.


    If you were using the undocumented runner configuration value added in #446, it is now runners.local.


    This change modifies the internals of methods like run and sudo; users maintaining their own subclasses should be aware of possible breakage.

0.18.0 2017-06-02

  • [Feature] #444: Add support for being used as python -m invoke <args> on Python 2.7 and up. Thanks to Pekka Klärck for the feature request.

  • [Feature] #205: Allow giving core flags like --help after tasks to trigger per-task help. Previously, only inv --help taskname worked.


    Tasks with their own --help flags won’t be able to leverage this feature - the parser will still interpret the flag as being per-task and not global. This may change in the future to simply throw an exception complaining about the ambiguity. (Feedback welcome.)

  • [Feature] #446: Implement cd and prefix context managers (as methods on the not-that-one-the-other-one Context class.) These are based on similar functionality in Fabric 1.x. Credit: Ryan P Kilby.

  • [Support] #448: Fix up some config-related tests that have been failing on Windows for some time. Thanks to Ryan P Kilby.

0.17.0 2017-05-05

  • [Feature]: Add a user kwarg & config parameter to Context.sudo, which corresponds roughly to sudo -u <user> <command>.
  • [Bug] #440: Make sure to skip a call to struct/ioctl on Windows platforms; otherwise certain situations inside run calls would trigger import errors. Thanks to @chrisc11 for the report.
  • [Bug] #425: Fix Inappropriate ioctl for device errors (usually OSError) when running Invoke without a tty-attached stdin (i.e. when run under ‘headless’ continuous integration systems or simply as e.g. inv sometask < /dev/null (redirected stdin.) Thanks to Javier Domingo Cansino for the report & Tuukka Mustonen for troubleshooting assistance.
  • [Bug] #439: Avoid placing stdin into bytewise read mode when it looks like Invoke has been placed in the background by a shell’s job control system; doing so was causing the shell to pause the Invoke process (e.g. with a message like suspended (tty output).) Reported by Tuukka Mustonen.

0.16.3 2017-04-18

  • [Bug]: Even more related tomfoolery.

0.16.2 2017-04-18

  • [Bug]: Deal with the fact that PyPI’s rendering of Restructured Text has no idea about our fancy new use of Sphinx’s doctest module. Sob.

0.16.1 2017-04-18

  • [Bug]: Fix a silly typo preventing proper rendering of the packaging long_description (causing an effectively blank PyPI description.)

0.16.0 2017-04-18

  • [Feature]: Result and UnexpectedExit objects now have a more useful repr() (and in the case of UnexpectedExit, a distinct repr() from their preexisting str().)

  • [Feature]: Context.sudo no longer prompts the user when the configured sudo password is empty; thus, an empty sudo password and a sudo program configured to require one will result in an exception.

    The runtime prompting for a missing password was a temporary holdover from Fabric v1, and in retrospect is undesirable. We may add it back in as an opt-in behavior (probably via subclassing) in the future if anybody misses it.


    This is a backwards incompatible change, if you were relying on sudo() prompting you for your password (vs configuring it). If you were doing that, you can simply switch to run("sudo <command>") and respond to the subprocess’ sudo prompt by hand instead.

  • [Feature]: Switched the order of the first two arguments of Config.__init__, so that the overrides kwarg becomes the first positional argument.

    This supports the common use case of making a Config object that honors the system’s core/global defaults; previously, because defaults was the first argument, you’d end up replacing those core defaults instead of merging with them.


    This is a backwards incompatible change if you were creating custom Config objects via positional, instead of keyword, arguments. It should have no effect otherwise.

  • [Feature] #309: Overhaul how task execution contexts/configs are handled, such that all contexts in a session now share the same config object, and thus user modifications are preserved between tasks. This has been done in a manner that should not break things like collection-based config (which may still differ from task to task.)


    This is a backwards incompatible change if you were relying on the post-0.12 behavior of cloning config objects between each task execution. Make sure to investigate if you find tasks affecting one another in unexpected ways!

  • [Feature] #418: Enhance ability of client libraries to override config filename prefixes. This includes modifications to related functionality, such as how env var prefixes are configured.


    This is a backwards incompatible change if:

    • you were relying on the env_prefix keyword argument to Config.__init__; it is now the prefix or env_prefix class attribute, depending.

    • or the kwarg/attribute of the same name in Program.__init__; you should now be subclassing Config and using its env_prefix attribute;

    • or if you were relying on how standalone Config objects defaulted to having a None value for env_prefix, and thus loaded env vars without an INVOKE_ style prefix.

      See new documentation for this functionality at Customizing the configuration system’s defaults for details.

  • [Feature] #232: Add support for .yml-suffixed config files (in addition to .yaml, .json and .py.) Thanks to Matthias Lehmann for the original request & Greg Back for an early patch.

  • [Bug] #430: Fallback importing of PyYAML when Invoke has been installed without its vendor directory, was still trying to import the vendorized module names (e.g. yaml2 or yaml3 instead of simply yaml). This has been fixed, thanks to Athmane Madjoudj.

  • [Bug] #432: Tighten application of IO thread join timeouts (in run) to only happen when #351 appears actually present. Otherwise, slow/overworked IO threads had a chance of being joined before truly reading all data from the subprocess’ pipe.

  • [Support]: Fixed some Python 2.6 incompatible string formatting that snuck in recently.

0.15.0 2017-02-14

  • [Feature]: Config.clone grew a new into kwarg allowing client libraries with their own Config subclasses to easily “upgrade” vanilla Invoke config objects into their local variety.

  • [Feature] #421: Updated Config.clone (and a few other related areas) to replace use of copy.deepcopy with a less-rigorous but also less-likely-to-explode recursive dict copier. This prevents frustrating TypeErrors while still preserving barriers between different tasks’ configuration values.

  • [Feature]: Config’s internals got cleaned up somewhat; end users should not see much of a difference, but advanced users or authors of extension code may notice the following:

    • Direct modification of config data (e.g. myconfig.section.subsection.key = 'value' in user/task code) is now stored in its own config ‘level’/data structure; previously such modifications simply mutated the central, ‘merged’ config cache. This makes it much easier to determine where a final observed value came from, and prevents accidental data loss.
    • Ditto for deleted values.
    • Merging/reconciliation of the config levels now happens automatically when data is loaded or modified, which not only simplifies the object’s lifecycle a bit but allows the previous change to function without requiring users to call .merge() after every modification.
  • [Bug] #413: Update behavior of DataProxy (used within Context and Config) again, fixing two related issues:

    • Creating new configuration keys via attribute access wasn’t possible: one had to do config['foo'] = 'bar' because = 'bar' would set a real attribute instead of touching configuration.
    • Supertypes’ attributes weren’t being considered during the “is this a real attribute on self?” test, leading to different behavior between a nested config-value-as-attribute and a top-level Context/Config one.
  • [Bug]: Fix configuration framework such that nested or dict-like config values may be compared with regular dicts. Previously, doing so caused an AttributeError (as regular dicts lack a .config).

  • [Bug] #419: Optional parser arguments had a few issues:

    • The conceptual docs about CLI parsing mentioned them, but didn’t actually show via example how to enable the feature, implying (incorrectly) that they were active always by default. An example has been added.
    • Even when enabled, they did not function correctly when their default values were of type bool; in this situation, trying to give a value (vs just giving the flag name by itself) caused a parser error. This has been fixed.

    Thanks to @ouroboroscoding for the report.

  • [Bug]: Configuration keys named config were inadvertently exposing the internal dict representation of the containing config object, instead of displaying the actual value stored in that key. (Thus, a set config of would act as if it was the key/value contents of the subtree.) This has been fixed.

  • [Bug]: Python 3’s hashing rules differ from Python 2, specifically:

    A class that overrides __eq__() and does not define __hash__() will have its __hash__() implicitly set to None.

    Config (specifically, its foundational class DataProxy) only defined __eq__ which, combined with the above behavior, meant that Config objects appeared to hash successfully on Python 2 but yielded TypeErrors on Python 3.

    This has been fixed by explicitly setting __hash__ = None so that the objects do not hash on either interpreter (there are no good immutable attributes by which to define hashability).

  • [Bug] #426: DataProxy based classes like Config and Context didn’t like being pickled or copied and threw RecursionError. This has been fixed.

  • [Support] #204: (via #412) Fall back to globally-installed copies of our vendored dependencies, if the import from the vendor tree fails. In normal situations this won’t happen, but it allows advanced users or downstream maintainers to nuke vendor/ and prefer explicitly installed packages of e.g. six, pyyaml or fluidity. Thanks to Athmane Madjoudj for the patch.

0.14.0 2016-12-05

  • [Feature] #369: Overhaul the autoresponse functionality for run so it’s significantly more extensible, both for its own sake and as part of implementing #294 (see its own changelog entry for details).


    This is a backwards incompatible change: the responses kwarg to run() is now watchers, and accepts a list of StreamWatcher objects (such as Responder) instead of a dict.

    If you were using run(..., responses={'pattern': 'response'} previously, just update to instead use run(..., watchers=[Responder('pattern', 'response')]).

  • [Feature] #294: Implement Context.sudo, which wraps run inside a sudo command. It is capable of auto-responding to sudo’s password prompt with a configured password, and raises a specific exception (AuthFailure) if that password is rejected.

  • [Feature]: Update implementation of Result so it has default values for all parameters/attributes. This allows it to be more easily used when mocking run calls in client libraries’ tests.


    This is a backwards incompatible change if you are manually instantiating Result objects with positional arguments: positional argument order has changed. (Compare the API docs between versions to see exactly how.)

  • [Feature]: Add a MockContext class for easier testing of user-written tasks and related client code. Includes adding a conceptual document on how to test Invoke-using code.

  • [Feature] #406: Update handling of Ctrl-C/KeyboardInterrupt, and subprocess exit status pass-through, to be more correct than before:

    • Submit the interrupt byte sequence \x03 to stdin of all subprocesses, instead of sending SIGINT.

      • This results in behavior closer to that of truly pressing Ctrl-C when running subprocesses directly; for example, interactive programs like vim or python now behave normally instead of prematurely exiting.
      • Of course, programs that would normally exit on Ctrl-C will still do so!
    • The exit statuses of subprocesses run with pty=True are more rigorously checked (using os.WIFEXITED and friends), allowing us to surface the real exit values of interrupted programs instead of manually assuming exit code 130.

      • Typically, this will be exit code -2, but it is system dependent.
      • Other, non-Ctrl-C-driven signal-related exits under PTYs should behave better now as well - previously they could appear to exit 0!
    • Non-subprocess-related KeyboardInterrupt (i.e. those generated when running top level Python code outside of any run function calls) will now trigger exit code 1, as that is how the Python interpreter typically behaves if you KeyboardInterrupt it outside of a live REPL.


    These changes are backwards incompatible if you were relying on the “exits 130” behavior added in version 0.13, or on the (incorrect) SIGINT method of killing pty-driven subprocesses on Ctrl-C.

  • [Feature]: Expose the (normalized) value of run’s hide parameter in its return-value Result objects.

  • [Bug]: Fix a bug in Config.clone where it was instantiating a new Config instead of a member of the subclass.

  • [Bug]: Correctly raise TypeError when unexpected keyword arguments are given to run.

  • [Bug] #58: Work around bugs in select() when handling subprocess stream reads, which was causing poor behavior in many nontrivial interactive programs (such as vim and other fullscreen editors, python and other REPLs/shells, etc). Such programs should now be largely indistinguishable from their behavior when run directly from a user’s shell.

  • [Bug]: Fix DataProxy (used within Context and Config) so that real attributes and methods which are shadowed by configuration keys, aren’t proxied to the config during regular attribute get/set. (Such config keys are thus required to be accessed via dict-style only, or (on Context) via the explicit .config attribute.)

  • [Bug] #283: Fix the concepts/library docs so the example of an explicit namespace= argument correctly shows wrapping an imported task module in a Collection. Thanks to @zaiste for the report.

  • [Bug] #288: Address a bug preventing reuse of Invoke as a custom binstub, by moving --list into the “core args” set of flags present on all Invoke-derived binstubs. Thanks to Jordon Mears for catch & patch.

  • [Bug] #349: Display the string representation of UnexpectedExit when handling it inside of Program (including regular inv), if any output was hidden during the run that generated it.

    Previously, we only exited with the exception’s stored exit code, meaning failures of run(..., hide=True) commands were unexpectedly silent. (Library-style use of the codebase didn’t have this problem, since tracebacks aren’t muted.)

    While implementing this change, we also tweaked the overall display of UnexpectedExit so it’s a bit more consistent & useful:

    • noting “hey, you ran with pty=True, so there’s no stderr”;
    • showing only the last 10 lines of captured output in the error message (users can, of course, always manually handle the error & access the full thing if desired);
    • only showing a given stream when it was not already printed to the user’s terminal (i.e. if hide=False, no captured output is shown in the error text; if hide='stdout', only stdout is shown in the error text; etc.)

    Thanks to Patrick Massot for the original bug report.

0.13.0 2016-06-09

  • [Feature] #67: Added shell option to run, allowing control of the shell used when invoking commands. Previously, pty=True used /bin/bash and pty=False (the default) used /bin/sh; the new unified default value is /bin/bash.

    Thanks to Jochen Breuer for the report.

  • [Feature] #259: (also #280) Allow updating (or replacing) subprocess shell environments, via the env and replace_env kwargs to run. Thanks to Fotis Gimian for the report, @philtay for an early version of the final patch, and Erich Heine & Vlad Frolov for feedback.

  • [Feature] #114: Ripped off the band-aid and removed non-contextualized tasks as an option; all tasks must now be contextualized (defined as def mytask(context, ...) - see Defining and running task functions) even if not using the context. This simplifies the implementation as well as users’ conceptual models. Thanks to Bay Grabowski for the patch.


    This is a backwards incompatible change!

  • [Bug] #152: (also #251, #331) Correctly handle KeyboardInterrupt during run, re: both mirroring the interrupt signal to the subprocess and capturing the local exception within Invoke’s CLI handler (so there’s no messy traceback, just exiting with code 130).

    Thanks to Peter Darrow for the report, and to Mika Eloranta & Máté Farkas for early versions of the patchset.

  • [Bug] #351: Protect against run deadlocks involving exceptions in I/O threads & nontrivial amounts of unread data in the corresponding subprocess pipe(s). This situation should now always result in exceptions instead of hangs.

  • [Bug] #350: (also #274, #241, #262, #242, #321, #338) Clean up and reorganize encoding-related parts of the code to avoid some of the more common or egregious encode/decode errors surrounding clearly non-ASCII-compatible text. Bug reports, assistance, feedback and code examples courtesy of Paul Moore, Vlad Frolov, Christian Aichinger, Fotis Gimian, Daniel Nunes, and others.

  • [Support] #314: (Partial fix.) Update so source distributions include some missing project-management files (e.g. our internal This makes unpacked sdists more useful for things like running the doc or build tasks.

  • [Support] #319: Fixed an issue resulting from #255 which caused problems with how we generate release wheels (notably, some releases such as 0.12.1 fail when installing from wheels on Python 2).


    As part of this fix, the next release will distribute individual Python 2 and Python 3 wheels instead of one ‘universal’ wheel. This change should be transparent to users.

    Thanks to @ojos for the initial report and Frazer McLean for some particularly useful feedback.

0.12.2 2016-02-07

  • [Bug] #303: Make sure run waits for its IO worker threads to cleanly exit (such as allowing a finally block to revert TTY settings) when KeyboardInterrupt (or similar) aborts execution in the main thread. Thanks to Tony S Yu and Máté Farkas for the report.
  • [Support] #314: (Partial fix.) Update so source distributions include some missing project-management files (e.g. our internal This makes unpacked sdists more useful for things like running the doc or build tasks.

0.12.1 2016-02-03

  • [Bug] #289: Handful of issues, all fallout from #289, which failed to make it out the door for 0.12.0. More are on the way but these should address blockers for some users:

    • Windows support for the new stdin replication functionality (this was totally blocking Windows users, as reported in #302 - sorry!);
    • Stdin is now mirrored to stdout when no PTY is present, so you can see what you’re typing (plus a new run option and config param, echo_stdin, allowing user override of this behavior);
    • Exposed the stdin read loop’s sleep time as Runner.input_sleep;
    • Sped up some tests a bit.
  • [Bug] #305: (also #306) Fix up some test-suite issues causing failures on Windows/Appveyor. Thanks to Paul Moore.

  • [Bug] #308: Earlier changes to TTY detection & its use in determining features such as stdin pass-through, were insufficient to handle edge cases such as nested Invoke sessions or piped stdin to Invoke processes. This manifested as hangs and OSError messages about broken pipes.

    The issue has been fixed by overhauling all related code to use more specific and accurate checks (e.g. examining just fileno and/or just isatty).

    Thanks to Tuukka Mustonen and Máté Farkas for the report (and for enduring the subsequent flood of the project maintainer’s stream-of-consciousness ticket updates).

0.12.0 2016-01-12

  • [Feature] #173: Overhauled top level CLI functionality to allow reusing Invoke for distinct binaries, optionally with bundled task namespaces as subcommands. As a side effect, this functionality is now much more extensible to boot. Thanks to Erich Heine for feedback/suggestions during development.


    This change is backwards incompatible if you imported anything from the invoke.cli module (which is now rearchitected as Program). It should be transparent to everybody else.

  • [Feature] #228: (partial) Modified and expanded implementation of Executor, Task and Call to make implementing task parameterization easier.

  • [Feature] #289: (also #263) Implement autoresponding for run.

  • [Feature] #68: Disable Python’s bytecode caching by default, as it complicates our typical use case (frequently-changing .py files) and offers little benefit for human-facing startup times. Bytecode caching can be explicitly re-enabled by specifying --write-pyc at runtime. Thanks to Jochen Breuer for feature request and @brutus for initial patchset.

  • [Bug]: Fixed a bug in the parser where invoke --takes-optional-arg avalue --anotherflag was incorrectly considering --anotherflag to be an ambiguity error (as if avalue had not been given to --takes-optional-arg.

  • [Bug] #295: Make sure that run’s hide=True also disables echoing. Otherwise, “hidden” helper run calls will still pollute output when run as e.g. invoke --echo ....

  • [Bug] #296: Don’t mutate sys.path on collection load if task’s parent directory is already on sys.path.

  • [Bug] #297: Ignore leading and trailing underscores when turning task arguments into CLI flag names.

  • [Bug] #257: Fix a RecursionError under Python 3 due to lack of __deepcopy__ on Call objects. Thanks to Markus Zapke-Gründemann for initial report and Máté Farkas for the patch.

  • [Support]: Fix incorrect changelog URL in package metadata.

  • [Support]: Removed the -H short flag, leaving just --hide. This was done to avoid conflicts with Fabric’s host-oriented -H flag. Favoritism is real! Apologies.


    This change is backwards compatible if you used -H.

  • [Support]: Removed official Python 3.2 support; sibling projects also did this recently, it’s simply not worth the annoyance given the userbase size.

  • [Support] #144: Add code-coverage reporting to our CI builds (albeit CodeCov instead of Includes rejiggering our project-specific coverage-generating tasks. Thanks to David Baumgold for the original request/PR and to Justin Abrahms for the tipoff re: CodeCov.

  • [Support] #254: Add an exclude option in our so setuptools doesn’t try loading our vendored PyYAML’s Python 2 sub-package under Python 3 (or vice versa - though all reports were from Python 3 users). Thanks to @yoshiya0503 for catch & initial patch.

  • [Support] #265: Update our Travis config to select its newer build infrastructure and also run on PyPy3. Thanks to Omer Katz.

0.11.1 2015-09-07

  • [Support]: Fix incorrect changelog URL in package metadata.

0.11.0 2015-09-07

  • [Feature] #235: Allow custom stream objects to be used in run calls, to be used instead of the defaults of sys.stdout/sys.stderr.


    This change required a major cleanup/rearchitecture of the command execution implementation. The vendored pexpect module has been completely removed and the API of the Runner class has changed dramatically (though the API for run() itself has not).

    Be aware there may be edge-case terminal behaviors which have changed or broken as a result of removing pexpect. Please report these as bugs! We expect to crib small bits of what pexpect does but need concrete test cases first.

  • [Feature]: Detect local controlling terminal size (pty_size) and apply that information when creating pseudoterminals in run when pty=True.

  • [Feature]: Add a .command attribute to Result to preserve the command executed for post-execution introspection.

  • [Bug] #238: (partial fix) Update the zsh completion script to account for use of the --collection core flag.

  • [Bug] #239: Completion erroneously presented core flags instead of per-task flags when both are present in the invocation being completed (e.g. inv --debug my_task -<tab>). This has been fixed.

  • [Bug] #237: Completion output lacked “inverse” flag names (e.g. --no-myoption as a boolean negative version of a defaulting-to-True boolean myoption). This has been corrected.

  • [Bug] #234: (also #243) Preserve task-module load location when creating explicit collections with from_module; when this was not done, project-local config files were not loading correctly. Thanks to @brutus and Jan Willems for initial report & troubleshooting, and to Greg Back for identifying the fix.

  • [Bug]: Capture & reraise exceptions generated by command execution I/O threads, in the main thread, as a ThreadException.

  • [Bug]: Correctly handle situations where sys.stdin has been replaced with an object lacking .fileno (e.g., some advanced Python shells, headless code execution tools, etc). Previously, this situation resulted in an AttributeError.

  • [Bug]: Display stdout instead of stderr in the repr() of Failure objects, when a pseudo-terminal was used. Previously, failure display focused on the stderr stream, which is always empty under pseudo-terminals.

  • [Support]: Tweak README to reflect recent(-ish) changes in pip re: users who install the development version via pip instead of using git.

  • [Support] #224: Add a completion script for the fish shell, courtesy of Jaime Marquínez Ferrándiz.

  • [Support]: Additional rearranging of run/Runner related concerns for improved subclassing, organization, and use in other libraries, including:

    • Changed the name of the runner module to runners.
    • Moved the top level run function from its original home in invoke.runner to invoke.__init__, to reflect the fact that it’s now simply a convenience wrapper around Runner.
    • Tweaked the implementation of Runner so it can reference Context objects (useful for anticipated subclasses).


    These are backwards incompatible changes if your code was doing any imports from the invoke.runner module (including especially, which is now only Function signatures have not changed.

0.10.1 2015-03-17

  • [Support]: Tweak README to reflect recent(-ish) changes in pip re: users who install the development version via pip instead of using git.

0.10.0 2015-03-17

  • [Feature] #147: Drastically overhaul/expand the configuration system to account for multiple configuration levels including (but not limited to) file paths, environment variables, and Python-level constructs (previously the only option). See Configuration for details. Thanks to Erich Heine for his copious feedback on this topic.


    This is technically a backwards incompatible change, though some existing user config-setting code may continue to work as-is. In addition, this system may see further updates before 1.0.

  • [Feature] #219: Fall back to non-PTY command execution in situations where pty=True but no PTY appears present. See Local for details.

  • [Feature] #104: Add core CLI flag --complete to support shell tab completion scripts, and add some ‘blessed’ such scripts for bash (3 and 4) and zsh. Thanks to Ivan Malison and Andrew Roberts for providing discussion & early patchsets.

  • [Bug] #175: autoprint did not function correctly for tasks stored in sub-collections; this has been fixed. Credit: Matthias Lehmann.

  • [Bug] #180: Empty invocation (e.g. just invoke with no flags or tasks, and when no default task is defined) no longer printed help output, instead complaining about the lack of default task. It now prints help again. Thanks to Brent O’Connor for the catch.

  • [Bug] #183: Task docstrings whose first line started on the same line as the opening quote(s) were incorrectly presented in invoke --help <task>. This has been fixed by using inspect.getdoc. Thanks to Pekka Klärck for the catch & suggested fix.

  • [Bug] #191: Bypass pexpect’s automatic command splitting to avoid issues running complex nested/quoted commands under a pty. Credit to @mijikai for noticing the problem.

  • [Bug] #201: (also #211) Replace the old, first-draft gross monkeypatched Popen code used for with a non-monkeypatched approach that works better on non-POSIX platforms like Windows, and also attempts to handle encoding and locale issues more gracefully (meaning: at all gracefully).

    Specifically, the new approach uses threading instead of, and performs explicit encoding/decoding based on detected or explicitly expressed encodings.

    Major thanks to Paul Moore for an enormous amount of testing/experimentation/discussion, as well as the bulk of the code changes themselves.


    The top level function has had a minor signature change: the sixth positional argument used to be runner and is now encoding (with runner now being the seventh positional argument).

  • [Support] #215: (also #213, #214) Tweak tests & configuration sections of the code to include Windows compatibility. Thanks to Paul Moore.

  • [Support] #212: Implement basic linting support using flake8, and apply formatting changes to satisfy said linting. As part of this shakeup, also changed all old-style (%s) string formatting to new-style ({0}). Thanks to Collin Anderson for the foundational patch.

  • [Support]: Reorganize Runner, Local and for improved distribution of responsibilities & downstream subclassing.


    This includes backwards incompatible changes to the API signature of most members of the invoke.runner module, including (However, in the case of, the changes are mostly in the later, optional keyword arguments.)

0.9.0 2014-08-26

  • [Feature] #136: Added the autoprint flag to invoke.tasks.Task/@task, allowing users to set up tasks which act as both subroutines & “print a result” CLI tasks. Thanks to Matthias Lehmann for the original patch.
  • [Bug]: Fixed a sub-case of the already-mostly-fixed #149 so the error message works usefully even with no explicit collection name given.
  • [Bug] #162: Adjust platform-sensitive imports so Windows users don’t encounter import-time exceptions. Thanks to Paul Moore for the patch.
  • [Bug] #119: (also #162, #113) Better handle platform-sensitive operations such as pty size detection or use, either replacing with platform-specific implementations or raising useful exceptions. Thanks to Gabi Davar and (especially) Paul Moore, for feedback & original versions of the final patchset.
  • [Bug] #167: Running the same task multiple times in one CLI session was horribly broken; it works now. Thanks to Erich Heine for the report.
  • [Bug] #165: Running inv[oke] with no task names on a collection containing a default task should (intuitively) have run that default task, but instead did nothing. This has been fixed.
  • [Support] #169: Overhaul the Sphinx docs into two trees, one for main project info and one for versioned API docs.

0.8.2 2014-06-15

  • [Bug] #142: The refactored Loader class failed to account for the behavior of imp.find_module when run against packages (vs modules) and was exploding at load time. This has been fixed. Thanks to David Baumgold for catch & patch.
  • [Bug] #145: Ensure a useful message is displayed (instead of a confusing exception) when listing empty task collections.
  • [Bug] #149: Print a useful message to stderr when Invoke can’t find the requested collection/tasks file, instead of displaying a traceback.

0.8.1 2014-06-09

  • [Bug] #140: Revert incorrect changes to our regarding detection of sub-packages such as the vendor tree & the parser. Also add additional scripting to our Travis-CI config to catch this class of error in future. Thanks to Steven Loria and James Cox for the reports.

0.8.0 2014-06-08

  • [Feature] #125: Improve output of Failure exceptions when printed.

  • [Feature] #124: Add a --debug flag to the core parser to enable easier debugging (on top of existing INVOKE_DEBUG env var.)

  • [Feature] #87: (also #92) Rework the loader module such that recursive filesystem searching is implemented, and is used instead of searching sys.path.

    This adds the behavior most users expect or are familiar with from Fabric 1 or similar tools; and it avoids nasty surprise collisions with other installed packages containing files named

    Thanks to Michael Hahn for the original report & PR, and to Matt Iversen for providing the discovery algorithm used in the final version of this change.


    This is technically a backwards incompatible change (reminder: we’re not at 1.0 yet!). You’ll only notice if you were relying on adding your tasks module to sys.path and then calling Invoke elsewhere on the filesystem.

  • [Feature] #110: Add task docstrings’ 1st lines to --list output. Thanks to Hiroki Kiyohara for the original PR (with assists from Robert Read and James Thigpen.)

  • [Feature] #115: Make it easier to reuse Invoke’s primary CLI machinery in other (non-Invoke-distributed) bin-scripts. Thanks to Noah Kantrowitz.

  • [Feature] #135: (also bugs #120, #123) Implement post-tasks to match pre-tasks, and allow control over the arguments passed to both (via For details, see Pre- and post-tasks.


    Pre-tasks were overhauled a moderate amount to implement this feature; they now require references to task objects instead of task names. This is a backwards incompatible change.

  • [Bug] #127: Fill in tasks’ exposed name attribute with body name if explicit name not given.

  • [Bug] #116: Ensure nested config overrides play nicely with default tasks and pre-tasks.

  • [Bug] #131: Make sure one’s local tasks module is always first in sys.path, even if its parent directory was already somewhere else in sys.path. This ensures that local tasks modules never become hidden by third-party ones. Thanks to @crccheck for the early report and to Dorian Puła for assistance fixing.

  • [Bug] #121: Add missing help output denoting inverse Boolean options (i.e. --[no-]foo for a --foo flag whose value defaults to true.) Thanks to Andrew Roberts for catch & patch.

  • [Bug] #128: Positional arguments containing underscores were not exporting to the parser correctly; this has been fixed. Thanks to J. Javier Maestro for catch & patch.

  • [Support]: Refactor the invoke.runners.Runner module to differentiate what it means to run a command in the abstract, from execution specifics. Top level API is unaffected.

  • [Support] #117: Tidy up a bit, including axing the (broken) distutils support. Thanks to Matt Iversen for the original PR & followup discussion.

  • [Support] #118: Update the bundled six plus other minor tweaks to support files. Thanks to Matt Iversen.

  • [Support] #25: Trim a bunch of time off the test suite by using mocking and other tools instead of dogfooding a bunch of subprocess spawns.

0.7.0 2014.01.28

0.6.1 2013.11.21

  • [Bug] #98: BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE CHANGE! Configuration merging has been reversed so outer collections’ config settings override inner collections. This makes distributing reusable modules significantly less silly.
  • [Bug] #96: Tasks in subcollections which set explicit names (via e.g. @task(name='foo')) were not having those names honored. This is fixed. Thanks to Omer Katz for the report.

0.6.0 2013.11.21

  • [Feature] #89: Implemented configuration for distributed task modules: can set config options in invoke.collection.Collection objects and they are made available to contextualized tasks.
  • [Bug] #86: Task arguments named with an underscore broke the help feature; this is now fixed. Thanks to Stéphane Klein for the catch.

0.5.1 2013.09.15

  • [Bug] #83: Fix a bug preventing underscored keyword arguments from working correctly as CLI flags (e.g. mytask --my-arg would not map back correctly to mytask(my_arg=...).) Credit: @akitada.
  • [Bug] #81: Fall back to sane defaults for PTY sizes when autodetection gives insane results. Thanks to @akitada for the patch.

0.5.0 2013.08.16

  • [Feature] #57: Optional-value flags added - e.g. --foo tells the parser to set the foo option value to True; --foo myval sets the value to “myval”. The built-in --help option now leverages this feature for per-task help (e.g. --help displays global help, --help mytask displays help for mytask only.)
  • [Bug] #55: A bug in our vendored copy of pexpect clashed with a Python 2->3 change in import behavior to prevent Invoke from running on Python 3 unless the six module was installed in one’s environment. This was fixed - our vendored pexpect now always loads its sibling vendored six correctly.