Frequently asked questions

General project questions

Why was Invoke split off from the Fabric project?

Fabric (1.x and earlier) was a hybrid project implementing two feature sets: task execution (organization of task functions, execution of them via CLI, and local shell commands) and high level SSH actions (organization of servers/hosts, remote shell commands, and file transfer).

For use cases requiring both feature sets, this arrangement worked well. However, over time it became clear many users only needed one or the other, with local-only users resenting heavy SSH/crypto install requirements, and remote-focused users struggling with API limitations caused by the hybrid codebase.

When planning Fabric 2.x, having the “local” feature set as a standalone library made sense, and it seemed plausible to design the SSH component as a separate layer above. Thus, Invoke was created to focus exclusively on local and abstract concerns, leaving Fabric 2.x concerned only with servers and network commands.

Fabric 2 leverages many parts of Invoke’s API, and allows (but does not require!) use of Invoke’s CLI features, allowing multiple use cases (build tool, high level SSH lib, hybrid build/orchestration tool) to coexist without negatively impacting each other.

Defining/executing tasks

My task’s first argument isn’t showing up in --help!

This problem pops up if you forget to define an initial context argument for your task.

For example, can you spot the problem in this sample task file?

from invoke import task

def build(c, where, clean=False):

def clean(what):

This task file doesn’t cause obvious errors when sanity-checking it with inv --list or inv --help. However, clean forgot to set aside its first argument for the context - so Invoke is treating what as the context argument! This means it doesn’t show up in help output or other command-line parsing stages.

The command line says my task’s first argument is invalid!

See My task’s first argument isn’t showing up in --help! - it’s probably the same issue.

Running local shell commands (run)

Why is my command behaving differently under Invoke versus being run by hand?

99% of the time, adding pty=True to your run call will make things work as you were expecting. Read on for why this is (and why pty=True is not the default).

Command-line programs often change behavior depending on whether a controlling terminal is present; a common example is the use or disuse of colored output. When the recipient of your output is a human at a terminal, you may want to use color, tailor line length to match terminal width, etc.

Conversely, when your output is being sent to another program (shell pipe, CI server, file, etc) color escape codes and other terminal-specific behaviors can result in unwanted garbage.

Invoke’s use cases span both of the above - sometimes you only want data displayed directly, sometimes you only want to capture it as a string; often you want both. Because of this, there is no “correct” default behavior re: use of a pseudo-terminal - some large chunk of use cases will be inconvenienced either way.

For use cases which don’t care, direct invocation without a pseudo-terminal is faster & cleaner, so it is the default.

Calling Python or Python scripts prints all the output at the end of the run!

The symptom is easy to spot - you’re running a command that takes a few seconds or more to execute, it usually prints lines of text as it goes, but via run nothing appears to happen at first, and then all the output prints once it’s done executing.

This is usually due to Python - the “inner” Python executable you’re invoking, not the one Invoke is running under - performing unwanted buffering of its output streams. It does this when it thinks it’s being called in a non-interactive fashion.

The fix is to force Invoke to run the command in a pseudoterminal by saying pty=True (e.g. run("python foo", pty=True)).

Alternately, since both Invoke and the inner command are Python, you could try loading the inner Python module directly in your Invoke-using code, and call whichever methods its command-line stub is using - instead of using run. This can often have other benefits too.

Why do I sometimes see err: stdin: is not a tty?

See Why is my command behaving differently under Invoke versus being run by hand? - the same root cause (lack of a PTY by default) is probably what’s going on. In some cases (such as via the Fabric library) it’s happening because a shell’s login files are calling programs that require a PTY (e.g. biff or mesg) so make sure to look there if the actual foreground command doesn’t seem at fault.

Everything just exits silently after I run a command!

Double check the command’s exit code! By default, receiving nonzero exit codes at the end of a run call will result in Invoke halting execution & exiting with that same code. Some programs (pylint, Nagios check scripts, etc) use exit codes to indicate non-fatal status, which can be confusing.

The solution here is to add warn=True to your run call, which disables the automatic exit behavior. Then you can check the result’s .exited attribute by hand to determine if it truly succeeded.

The auto-responder functionality isn’t working for my password prompts!

Some programs write password prompts or other output directly to the local terminal (the operating-system-level TTY device), bypassing the usual stdout/stderr streams. For example, this is exactly what the stdlib's getpass module does, if you’re calling a program that happens to be written in Python.

When this happens, we’re powerless, because all we get to see is the subprocess’ regular output streams. Thankfully, the solution is usually easy: just add pty=True to your run call. Forcing use of an explicit pseudo-terminal usually tricks these kinds of programs into writing prompts to stderr.

I’m getting IOError: Inappropriate ioctl for device when I run commands!

This error typically means some code in your project or its dependencies has replaced one of the process streams (sys.stdin, sys.stdout or sys.stderr) with an object that isn’t actually hooked up to a terminal, but which pretends that it is. For example, test runners or build systems often do this.

99% of the time, this pops up for stdin only, in which case you may be able to work around it by specifying in_stream=False to run (note: False, not None!)

Gory details

Technically, what’s happened is that the object handed to Invoke’s command executor as e.g. run('command', in_stream=xxx) (or out_stream or etc; and these all default to the sys members listed above) implements a fileno method that is not returning the ID of a real terminal file descriptor. Breaking the contract in this way is what’s leading Invoke to do things the OS doesn’t like.

We’re always trying to make this detection smarter; if upgrading to the latest version of Invoke doesn’t fix the problem for you, please submit a bug report including details about the values and types of sys.stdin/stdout/stderr. Hopefully we’ll find another heuristic we can use!